好轻松考研 考研英语 2021考研英语翻译技巧之定语从句句式

2021考研英语翻译技巧之定语从句句式

定语从句的翻译方法主要有以下四种:

前置法:把定语从句的内容翻译成"……的",放在被修饰词的前面。

后置法:把定语从句的翻译放在被修饰词之后,定语从句的后置翻译分为三类:由which引导定语从句时一般翻译为"这"另一些引导词则在翻译时重复先行词,即被修饰词还有一些引导词在翻译时可以省略不译。

融合法:将定语从句与主句融合为一个简单句的方法。这种用法往往用在"there be"结构带有定语从句的句型中。

状译法:如果主句和定语从句之间有明显逻辑关系,则翻译为状语。

【试题例句1】

Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.

【解析】

可以拆分为:Behaviorists suggest //that the child //who is raised //in an environment// where there are many stimuli //which develop his or her capacity //for appropriate responses //will experience greater intellectual development.

本句的主干即是Behaviorists suggest that ...that引导suggest的宾语从句,动词是will experiencewho引导修饰child的定语从句,动词为is raisedwhere引导修饰environment的定语从句,动词为arewhich引导修饰stimuli的定语从句,动词为develop。who引导的定语从句的翻译运用了"状译法",翻译为"如果……那么……"where引导的定语从句因比较短小而采取了前置法,放到了先行词environment的前面,翻译为"……的"which引导的定语从句翻译为转折关系。

【参考译文】

行为主义者的看法是,如果一个儿童在有许多刺激物的环境里成长,而这些刺激物能够发展其做出适当反应的能力,那么,这个儿童将会有更高的智力发展。

【试题例句2】

The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought, which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languages could be.

【解析】

可以拆分为:The Greeks assumed //that the structure of language had some connection// with the process of thought, //which took root// in Europe //long before people realized //how diverse languages could be.

本句的主干即是:The Greeks assumed。That引导assumed的宾语从句,动词为hadwhich引导定语从句修饰前面的整个宾语从句,即希腊人的观点,句中动词是took在此定语从句中,long before引导时间状语从句,动词是realized其中how引导realized的宾语从句,从句动词为could be。which引导的定语从句在翻译时重复先行词,即前面整句,译为"这一观点"。

【参考译文】

希腊人认为,语言结构与思维过程之间存在着某种联系。这一观点在人们尚未认识到语言的千差万别以前就早已在欧洲扎下了根。

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